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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 1 July Padma Bhushan award recipients — Indiresan Wahiduddin Khan B. Lal Raghunath Anant Mashelkar H. Iyengar Faquir Chand Kohli V. Narayanaswamy Arcot Ramachandran Trichur V. Ramachandran Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti T. Sankaranarayanan Naseeruddin Shah T. Vijayan Herbert Alexandrovich Yefremov.
Pylee Subramaniam Ramadorai N. Ramachandran Tapan Raychaudhuri S. Srinivasan Osamu Suzuki K. Padmanabhaiah Vikram Pandit V. Posthumous conferral — — — — — — — Padma Award winners of Kerala. Madhavan Nair John Mathai K. Krishna Iyer Verghese Kurien K. Nambiar Ammannur Madhava Chakyar A.
Krishnan Nair Chembai E. Balamani Amma Lakshmi N. Ravi Pillai Balachandra Menon C. Vijayaraghavan Gopinath Pillai J.
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All patients had several complaints, such as fever and cough. KPP tends to affect people with underlying diseases, such as alcoholism, diabetes and chronic lung disease [ 19 — 21 ]. In the present study, alcoholism In the patients with concurrent pneumonia MRSA or PA , underlying conditions such as cardiac diseases, diabetic mellitus and malignancy were significantly more frequent than in patients with KPP alone. The mortality rate in patients with KPP alone was lower than that in previous studies, and the mortality rate in concurrent KPP was similar to that previously reported [ 2 , 19 , 22 ].
Therefore, the mortality rates reported previously might reflect that in concurrent KPP. KPP has been classified by radiographic and clinical criteria [ 9 , 22 — 24 ].
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Carpenter [ 22 ] has divided Klebsiella pulmonary infections into acute pneumonia and complications of acute pneumonia. The complications consist of lung abscess, pulmonary gangrene and chronic KPP.
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In the present study of patients, GGA was most frequent, followed by consolidation and intralobular reticular opacity; however, there was no significant difference between the three groups. CT findings such as centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis were significantly more frequent with concurrent pneumonia than those with KPP alone. Shah et al [ 25 ] have reported CT findings in 28 patients with nosocomial PA pneumonia: Bilateral pleural effusion was seen in 13 patients There was no significant difference in the distribution or frequency of abnormal findings between the two groups.
Pleural effusion was present in all patients. Enlarged lymph nodes were present in four patients. Classified histologically as bronchopneumonia, nodular features would be expected upon CT evaluation of PA pneumonia. Pathologically, bronchopneumonia demonstrates inflammatory changes involving the bronchial and bronchiolar walls, with minimal exudation into adjacent alveoli [ 27 ].
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In the present study, a cavitary lesion was found in only one patient 1. However, this might be because most of the literature was published from the s to the s, which represents the pre-antibiotic era or a period of minimal antibiotic use. In addition, there have been no studies in which additional pathogens were evaluated in patients with KPP. We have recently reported that in of patients In the present study, the frequency of cavitary lesions in concurrent KPP was similar to that in previous studies; therefore, the frequencies reported previously might reflect those in concurrent KPP.
It should be noted that there were several limitations to our study. First, this was a retrospective study and CT image interpretation was performed by consensus. Second, our study lacked a pathological correlation with specific CT findings such as consolidation and intralobular reticular opacity. Third, the thin-section CT images were obtained at several institutions using different protocols. Moreover, CT findings such as centrilobular nodules, bronchial wall thickening, cavity and pleural effusion were significantly more frequent in patients with concurrent pneumonia than those with KPP alone.
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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Br J Radiol v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical and thin-section CT findings in patients with acute Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia KPP alone and with concurrent infection. Methods and materials Patients Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent.
Table 1 Patient characteristics and underlying conditions. Open in a separate window. Image interpretation Two chest radiologists with 21 and 13 years of experience in chest CT image interpretation who were unaware of the underlying diagnoses retrospectively and independently interpreted the CT images. Results Clinical features All of the patients had respiratory symptoms.
Table 2 Comparison of thin-section CT findings. Disease distribution Of the patients with KPP and concurrent pneumonia, abnormal findings were found bilaterally in patients Effusion and lymph nodes Pleural effusion was found in 42 Follow-up study All patients underwent antibiotic therapy. Klebsiella pneumonia in the modern era: South Med J ; An evaluation of 22 patients with acute and chronic pulmonary infection with Friedlander's bacillus. Ann Intern Med ; Pneumonia and lung abscess.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 1: Rapidly fatal outcome of bacteremic Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia in alcoholics. A case of Friedlander's pneumonia simulating tuberculosis with prolonged duration. Acta Radiol Stockh ; 7: The roentgen-ray diagnosis of pulmonary infections with Friedlander's bacillus. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther ; Roentgen findings in acute Friedlander's pneumonia.
Ritvo M, Martin F. The clinical and roentgen manifestations of pneumonia due to Bacillus mucosis capsulatus primary Friedlander pneumonia. Clinical and pulmonary thin-section CT findings in acute Klebsiella Pneumoniae pneumonia. Eur Radiol ; Severe community-acquired pneumonia-epidemiology and prognostic factors. Am Rev Respir Dis ; High-resolution computed tomography findings of lung disease. High-resolution CT of the lung, 3rd edn. Glossary of terms for CT of the lungs: Clinical impact of nosocomial Klebsiella bacteremia in critically ill patients.
N Engl J Med ; Epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Pediatr Infect Dis J ; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized adults and children without known risk factors.
Clin Infect Dis ; Community-acquired versus nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: J Korean Med Sci ; Hyde L, Hyde B. Am J Med Sci ;
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