By Sally Brown , Ruth Pickford. Assessing Skills and Practice outlines how to ensure fair, consistent and reliable assessment of practical activities. For new as well as more experienced lecturers, this motivational book is packed with accessible and practical advice, grounded in learning theory.
Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers
The authors show how to take a step back, reflect on your current practice and take measures to improve it. A wide range of creative and innovative…. Information and Communication Technology is part of everyday life, including education. For teachers, however, keeping up to date with the various technologies that help support the learning process can be challenging. This practical and realistic book is designed to help practitioners who wish to improve their effectiveness in assessing a large and a diverse range of students.
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It will help them to: This indispensable guide for new university or college teachers brings together straightforward and practical advice on small group teaching as well as examples of practice across disciplines and a sprinkling of sound educational theory. Written in a highly accessible jargon-free style, this book…. Leading Learning and Teaching in Higher Education The key guide to designing and delivering courses By Doug Parkin Leading Learning and Teaching in Higher Education brings together contemporary ideas on leadership, engagement and student learning into a practical solutions-based resource designed for those undertaking the challenge of leading a university-level teaching module, programme or suite of programmes,… Paperback — Routledge Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education.
Universities are in part aiming to meet this need by increasing the use of technology; for example, whether to… Paperback — Routledge Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education. Increasingly, universities are drawing from a less traditional group of students — international students, disabled… Paperback — Routledge Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education. Enhancing Learning through Formative Assessment and Feedback By Alastair Irons This book is based on the argument that detailed and developmental formative feedback is the single most useful thing teachers can do for students.
This book is a jargon-free, practical guide to improving one-to-one teaching, covering a wide range of… Paperback — Routledge Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education. Designing Learning From Module Outline to Effective Teaching By Christopher Butcher , Clara Davies , Melissa Highton Written in an informative and jargon-free style, this book is guided by principles of good practice and covers the relevant theory to deal with the essential aspects of designing a course.
Developing Your Teaching Ideas, Insight and Action By Peter Kahn For new as well as more experienced lecturers, this motivational book is packed with accessible and practical advice, grounded in learning theory. Also, they believed that most of the developed countries are attempting to use new teaching methods, such as student-centered active methods, problem-based and project-based approaches in education.
For example, the faculty number 3 said:. It is a very interesting technique to arouse interest, motivate students, and enhance their skills Faculty member No. In recent years, this project was used to empower the students. They will be allowed to accept the roles in a project and, therefore, deeply engage in the process of software development.
In Iran, many studies have been conducted about new teaching methods. For example, studies by Momeni Danaie 10 , Noroozi 11 , and Zarshenas 12 , have shown various required methods of teaching. They have also concluded that pure lecture, regardless of any feedback ensuring the students learning, have lost their effectiveness. The problem-oriented approach in addition to improving communication skills among students not only increased development of critical thinking but also promoted study skills and an interest in their learning In this study, the professors noted that there are some barriers to effective teaching that are mentioned below:.
Having a successful and effective teaching that creates long-term learning on the part of the students will require certain feelings and attitudes of the teachers. These attitudes and emotions strongly influence their behavior and teaching. In this section, the attitudes of successful teachers are discussed. Teachers have to focus on mental differences, interest, and sense of belonging, emotional stability, practical experience and scientific level of students in training.
Class curriculum planning includes preparation, effective transition of content, and the use of learning and evaluating teaching To connect with students and impact their lives personally and professionally, teachers must be student-centered and demonstrate respect for their background, ideologies, beliefs, and learning styles. The limitation in this research was little access to other nationally recognized university faculty members; also their tight schedule was among other limitations in this study that kept us several times from interviewing such faculties.
To overcome such a problem, they were briefed about the importance of this study and then some appointments were set with them. This study revealed the effective teaching methods, requirements and barriers in Iranian Higher Education. They believed that to grow successful people to deal with the challenges in evolving the society, most developed countries are attempting to use new teaching methods in higher education. All these methods are student-centered and are the result of pivotal projects.
Research conducted by Momeni Danaei and colleagues also showed that using a combination of various teaching methods together will lead to more effective learning while implementing just one teaching model cannot effectively promote learning In this study, barriers according to codes were divided two major categories: However, teachers who are aware of the necessity of engaging the student for a better understanding of their content try to use this method as a combination that is class speech presentation and involving students in teaching and learning.
This result is consistent with the research findings of Momeni Danaei and colleagues 10 , Zarshenas et al. Using student-centered methods in higher education needs some requirements that according to faculty members who were interviewed, and according to the codes, such requirements for effective teaching can be divided into two categories: First, things to exist in the outlook of faculties about the students and faculties' responsibility towards them, to guide them towards effective teaching methods, the most important of which are adaptation to the organizational strategies, interest in the students and trust in their abilities, systemic approach in higher education, and interest in their discipline.
This category emerged from some codes, including having lesson plan; using appropriate educational strategies and metacognition training and self-assessment of students during teaching; using concept and pre-organizer maps in training, knowledge; and explaining how to resolve problems in professional career through teaching discussion, documenting of experience and having satisfactory interaction with the students.
This result is consistent with the findings of Klug et al. In addition and according to the results, we can conclude that a major challenge for universities, especially at a time of resource constraints, is to organize teaching so as to maximize learning effectiveness. As mentioned earlier, a major barrier to change is the fact that most faculty members are not trained for their teaching role and are largely ignorant of the research literature on effective pedagogy.
These findings are in agreement with the research of Knapper, indicating that the best ideas for effective teaching include: In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers and the agents of responsibility for change.
But whenever the teachers can teach by this method, they are faced with some barriers and requirements. Therefore, to have an effective teaching, the faculty members of universities should be aware of these barriers and requirements as a way to improve the teaching quality. Effective teaching also requires structural changes that can only be brought about by academic leaders.
These changes include hiring practices reward structures that recognize the importance of teaching expertise, quality assurance approaches that measure learning processes, outcomes in a much more sophisticated way than routine methods, and changing the way of attaining university accreditation. This will help other university teachers to be familiar with effective teaching and learning procedures. Therefore, curriculum planners and faculty members can improve their teaching methods. The authors would like to thank all research participants of Isfahan University of Technology faculties who contributed to this study and spent their time to share their experiences through interviews.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Adv Med Educ Prof. Received Nov 6; Accepted Jul This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Rapid changes of modern world have caused the Higher Education System to face a great variety of challenges. Methods The study was conducted with a qualitative method using content analysis approach.
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Ethical considerations The aim of the research and interview method was explained to the participants and in the process of the study, informed consent was obtained from all the participants and they were ensured of the anonymity of their responses and that audio files were removed after use. Results The mean age of faculty members in this study was Table 2 Examples of extracting codes, categories and themes from raw data. Meaning unit Code Category Theme "If faculties know themselves as an inseparable part of the university, and proud of their employment in the university …".
Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers
The large number of students in classes. High volume theoretical principles Associated with laws and regulations Barriers "If at least in the form of teacher evaluation, some questions were allocated to the use of project-based and problem-based approaches, and student-centered learning, teachers would try to use them further". New teaching methods and barriers to the use of these methods Teachers participating in this study believed that teaching and learning in higher education is a shared process, with responsibilities on both student and teacher to contribute to their success.
For example, the faculty number 3 said: In this study, the professors noted that there are some barriers to effective teaching that are mentioned below: The requirements defined curriculum and resources in the teaching, the large number of students in classes, and High volume theoretical principles.
Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education
As to the use of new methods of training such as problem-based methods or project-based approach, faculty members No. Do not take a problem-based learning and student-centered learning in their evaluation as a bonus for teachers. The faculty members No. Requirements related to faculty outlook in an effective teaching Having a successful and effective teaching that creates long-term learning on the part of the students will require certain feelings and attitudes of the teachers.
Alignment with organizational strategies.
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Coordination with the overall organizational strategies will allow the educational system to move toward special opportunities for innovation based on the guidelines The participants, 4, 3, 5 and 8 know that teaching effectively makes sense if the efforts of the professors are aligned with the goals of university.
Thus, they will try as much as possible to attain this goal" Faculty member No. When a person begins to learn, according to the value of hope theory, he must feel this is an important learning and believe that he will succeed. Since the feeling of being successful will encourage individuals to learn, you should know that teachers have an important role in this sense Masters 7 and 8 signified that a master had a holistic and systematic view, determined the position of the teaching subject in a field or in the entire course, know general application of issues and determines them for students, and try to teach interdisciplinary topics.
Requirements related to the behavior and performance of faculty members in effective teaching Teachers have to focus on mental differences, interest, and sense of belonging, emotional stability, practical experience and scientific level of students in training. Having a course plan, using appropriate educational strategies.
According to Choi and Pucker, the most important role of teachers is planning and controlling the educational process for students to be able to achieve a comprehensive learning Every five faculty members who were interviewed cited the need to explain the lessons in plain language, give feedback to students, and explain the causes and reasons of issues.
Improving the quality of learning through the promotion of education, using pre-organizers and conceptual map, emphasizing the student-centered learning and developing the skills needed for employment are the strategies outlined in lifelong learning, particularly in higher education The belief that creative talent is universal and it will be strengthened with appropriate programs is a piece of evidence to prove that innovative features of the programs should be attended to continually Certainly, in addition to the enumerated powers, appropriate fields should be provided to design new ideas with confidence and purposeful orientation.
Otherwise, in the absence of favorable conditions and lack of proper motivations, it will be difficult to apply new ideas Explaining and developing knowledge on how to resolve the issues in future career through class discussion. Senior instructors try to engage in self-management and consultation, tracking their usage of classroom management skills and developing action plans to modify their practices based on data.
Skills in documenting the results of the process of teaching-learning cannot only facilitate management in terms of studying the records, but also provides easier access to up to date information Then, I write down every successful strategy that was highly regarded by students that day" Faculty member No. Developing a satisfactory interaction with students To connect with students and impact their lives personally and professionally, teachers must be student-centered and demonstrate respect for their background, ideologies, beliefs, and learning styles.
Discussion This study revealed the effective teaching methods, requirements and barriers in Iranian Higher Education. Conclusion In the present study, it was illustrated that a good teaching method helps the students to question their preconceptions, and motivates them to learn, by putting them in a situation in which they come to see themselves as the authors of answers and the agents of responsibility for change.
Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank all research participants of Isfahan University of Technology faculties who contributed to this study and spent their time to share their experiences through interviews. The European project semester: A useful teaching method in engineering education project approaches to learning in engineering education.
Journal of Engineering Education. New perspectives in engineering education: A philosophical investigation of the role of teacher: A synthesis of Plato, Confucius, blubber and freire. Teaching and Teacher Education. Engineering training and education. Yash Pal S, editor. Journal of Advances in Medical Education and Professionalism. Merrill Prentice Hall;
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